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Hadrian was devastated by the death of Antinous, and possibly also experiencing remorse. Various suggestions have been put forward for how he died, ranging from an accidental drowning to an intentional human sacrifice or suicide. Although these may well be idealised images, they demonstrate what all contemporary writers described as Antinous's extraordinary beauty. The worship of Antinous proved to be one of the most enduring and popular of cults of deified humans in the Roman empire, and events continued to be founded in his honor long after Hadrian's death. In some inscriptions he is identified as a divine hero, in others as a god, and in others as both a divine hero and a god.
Antinous became associated with homosexuality in Western culture, appearing in the work of Oscar Wilde and Fernando Pessoa. Journal of the History of Sexuality. The city of Antinopolis was erected on the site of Hir-we. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Viewing the religion as a blasphemous rival to Christianity, they insisted that Antinous had simply been a mortal human and condemned his sexual activities with Hadrian as immoral.
It is generally agreed, although not proven, that Antinous was also initiated at that time. From Achilles to Antinoos Cambridge, Mass. Some contemporary Neo-Pagan groups have re-sacralized Antinous.
Associating his cult with malevolent magic, they argued that Hadrian had imposed his worship through fear. Antinous Mondragone at the Louvre Museum. Antinous was understood differently by his various worshippers, in part due to regional and cultural variation. The Antinous Braschi type Louvre. As Bacchus, Capitoline Museums.
Hadrian was keen to disseminate the cult of Antinous throughout the Roman Empire. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Antinous.
Antinous accompanied Hadrian during his attendance of the annual Eleusinian Mysteries in Athens, and was with him when he killed the Marousian lion in Libya. Another possibility is that Antinous represented a voluntary human sacrifice. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Antinopolis continued to grow into the Byzantine era, being Christianised with the conversion of the Empire, however it retained an association with magic for centuries to come. Cambridge University Press. He focused on its spread within the Greek lands, and in Summer travelled these areas promoting it by presenting Antinous in a syncretised form with the more familiar deity Hermes.
Conversely, in many Egyptian inscriptions he is described as both a hero and a god, while in others he was seen as a full god, and in Egypt, he was often understood as a daemon. One possibility is that he was murdered by a conspiracy at court. Part of the appeal was that Antinous had once been human himself, watch black swan online no no surveys and thus was more relatable than many other deities.
Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies. Antinous as a priest of the imperial cult Louvre. It is unclear whether Hadrian genuinely believed that Antinous had become a god. Power and Eroticism in Imperial Rome. Hadrian founded the city of Antinopolis close to Antinous's place of death, which became a cultic centre for the worship of Osiris-Antinous.
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Hadrian proclaimed that games would be held at the city in Spring in commemoration of Antinous. Events included athletic competitions, chariot and equestrian races, and artistic and musical festivals, with prizes including citizenship, money, tokens, and free lifetime maintenance. From there, they headed to Egypt.
It has been argued that either his body or some relics associated with him would have been interred at a shrine in Antinopolis, although this has yet to be identified archaeologically. He was angelically good-looking, an untamed Antinous. For other uses, see Antinous disambiguation. The Story of Hadrian and Antinous.
Bust of Antinous in the Palazzo Altemps museum in Rome. The cult of Antinous was criticised by various individuals, both pagan and Christian. Conversely, opposing this possibility is the fact that Hadrian disliked human sacrifice and had strengthened laws against it in the Empire.
Boston Museum of Fine Arts. The Oxford history of the Roman world. University of Texas Press. In this situation, Hadrian might not have revealed the cause of Antinous's death because he did not wish to appear either physically or politically weak. The Journal of Roman Studies.
Relief, as Sylvanus, National Museum of Rome. Following his death, Hadrian deified Antinous and founded an organised cult devoted to his worship that spread throughout the Empire. There are also statues in many archaeological museums in Greece including the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, the archaeological museums of Patras, Chalkis and Delphi. Villa Albani relief from the Torlonia collection, Rome. The retinue included officials, the Prefect, army and naval commanders, as well as literary and scholarly figures.
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